The New Republic
After the ratification of the Constitution, the second American government had its work cut out for it. It had to do what the Articles of Confederation could not do: unite thirteen independent states together as one country. The nation faced many challenges both foreign and domestic. Muslim pirates attacked U.S. ships in the Mediterrean Sea, Britain blocked trade with America and impressed many U.S. sailors, and France targeted American shipping touching off an undeclared war. On the homefront, American Indians and western settlers constantly fought, Spain blocked U.S. access to the vital Mississippi River, Americans rioted against new taxes in Pennsylvania, and the U.S. teetered on the edge bankruptcy. Seven presidents, Congress, and the Supreme Court dealt with these issues to bring stability to the new United States.